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Staging
Definitive diagnosis of ovarian tumors requires surgery to obtain the ovarian tissue for the pathologist. The surgeon will also assess the stage of the tumor i.e. how far the disease has spread. Together with the pathologist's report, this information will help identify the appropriate treatment.

Staging is an assessment of how far the tumor has spread.

    Stage I - Growth of tumor limited to the ovaries

    Stage II - Growth of tumor in one or both ovaries

    Stage III - Tumor involving one or both ovaries with peritoneal implants outside the pelvis and/or positive retroperitoneal or inguinal lymph nodes. Superficial liver metastasis equals stage III.

    Stage IV - Growth involving one or both ovaries with distant metastases. If pleural effusion is present there must be positive cytology to allot a case to stage IV. Tumor spread inside the liver, equals stage IV.

    Recurrent/Refractory - Recurrence means that the tumor has returned after initial therapy. Refractory means that the tumor fails to respond to initial treatment.


  
     
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